John F. Kennedy and Irish History

Last fall, I wrote a series of posts discussing US Presidential visits to Ireland, and one thing that I found striking was the use of history in the Presidents’ speeches.  What did they choose to focus on in Irish history, and what historical connections between Ireland and the United States did they call upon?

The most famous visit of an American president to Ireland was that of John F. Kennedy from 26 to 29 June 1963.  Find my overview of his trip here.

The Cold War was a clear backdrop to Kennedy’s words, as he referenced Ireland’s past, present, and future role as a beacon of freedom in the world.  Other frequent themes included the role of the Irish diaspora, the life of De Valera, and the Irish participation in the American Civil War.  A breakdown of his speeches follows.

Remarks Upon Arrival at Dublin Airport (26 June 1963)

In this opening speech, Kennedy set out many of the themes for the speeches he would make throughout his visit.

As you said, eight of my grandparents left these shores in the space, almost, of months, and came to the United States. No country in the world, in the history of the world, has endured the hemorrhage which this island endured over a period of a few years for so many of her sons and daughters. These sons and daughters are scattered throughout the world, and they give this small island a family of millions upon millions who are scattered all over the globe, who have been among the best and most loyal citizens of the countries that they have gone to, but have also kept a special place in their memories, in many cases their ancestral memory, of this green and misty island. So, in a sense, all of them who visit Ireland come home.

In addition, Mr. President, I am proud to visit here because of you–an old and valued friend of my father–who has served his country with so much distinction, spreading over the period of a half-century; who has expressed in his own life and in the things that he stood for the very best of Western thought and, equally important, Western action.

And then I am glad to be here because this island still fulfills a historic assignment. There are Irishmen buried many thousands of miles from here who went on missions of peace, either as soldiers or as churchmen, who traveled throughout the world, carrying the gospel as so many Irish have done for so many hundreds of years.

Remarks on the Quay at New Ross (27 June 1963)

Kennedy fittingly recounted his own family history as emigrants from Ireland.

Remarks at Redmond Place in Wexford (27 June 1963)

Kennedy remembered the role of John Barry in the American Revolutionary War and the Irish Brigade in the American Civil War.

It seems to me that in these dangerous days when the struggle for freedom is worldwide against an armed doctrine, that Ireland and its experience has one special significance, and that is that the people’s fight, which John Boyle O’Reilly said outlived a thousand years, that it was possible for a people over hundreds of years of foreign domination and religious persecution–it was possible for that people to maintain their national identity and their strong faith. And therefore those who may feel that in these difficult times, who may believe that freedom may be on the run, or that some nations may be permanently subjugated and eventually wiped out, would do well to remember Ireland.

Remarks at the City Hall in Cork (28 June 1963)

I would like to ask how many people here have relatives in the United States.  Perhaps they could hold up their hands, if they do.

… Most countries send out oil or iron, steel or gold or some other crop, but Ireland has had only one export and that is its people. They have gone all over the United States, and the United States has been generous to them. And I think it not unfair to say that they have been generous themselves and with their sons and daughters to the United States.

… And I come to this island which has been identified with that effort for a thousand years, which was the first country in the 20th century to lead what is the most powerful tide of the 20th century–the desire for national independence, the desire to be free. And I come here in 1963 and find that strong tide still beats, still runs. And I drive from where we arrived to here and am greeted by an honor guard on the way down, nearly half of whom wear the Blue Ribbon which indicates service in the Congo. So Ireland is still old Ireland, but it has found a new mission in the 1960’s, and that is to lead the free world to join with other countries of the free world to do in the sixties what Ireland did in the early part of this century and, indeed, has done for the last 800 years–and that is associate intimately with independence and freedom.

Address Before the Irish Parliament in Dublin (28 June 1963)

Earlier in the day, Kennedy laid a wreath at the graves of the executed leaders of the Easter Rising, at Arbour Hill.

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Kennedy in Ireland – photo credit: RTE

He then became the first foreign leader to address the Houses of the Oireachtas. In this important speech, Kennedy began by calling upon links between Ireland and the United States through recounting the role of the Irish Brigade in the American Civil War.

…I am proud to be the first American President to visit Ireland during his term of office, proud to be addressing this distinguished assembly, and proud of the welcome you have given me. My presence and your welcome, however, only symbolize the many and the enduring links which have bound the Irish and the Americans since the earliest days.

Benjamin Franklin–the envoy of the American Revolution who was also born in Boston–was received by the Irish Parliament in 1772. It was neither independent nor free from discrimination at the time, but Franklin reported its members “disposed to be friends of America.” “By joining our interest with theirs,” he said, “a more equitable treatment … might be obtained for both nations.”

Our interests have been joined ever since. Franklin sent leaflets to Irish freedom fighters. O’Connell was influenced by Washington, and Emmet influenced Lincoln. Irish volunteers played so predominant a role in the American army that Lord Mountjoy lamented in the British Parliament that “we have lost America through the Irish.” John Barry, whose statue we honored yesterday and whose sword is in my office, was only one who fought for liberty in America to set an example for liberty in Ireland. Yesterday was the 117th anniversary of the birth of Charles Stewart Parnell–whose grandfather fought under Barry and whose mother was born in America-and who, at the age of 34, was invited to address the American Congress on the cause of Irish freedom. “I have seen since I have been in this country,” he said, “so many tokens of the good wishes of the American people toward Ireland …. ” And today, 83 years later, I can say to you that I have seen in this country so many tokens of good wishes of the Irish people towards America.

And so it is that our two nations, divided by distance, have been united by history. No people ever believed more deeply in the cause of Irish freedom than the people of the United States. And no country contributed more to building my own than your sons and daughters. They came to our shores in a mixture of hope and agony, and I would not underrate the difficulties of their course once they arrived in the United States. They left behind hearts, fields, and a nation yearning to be free. It is no wonder that James Joyce described the Atlantic as a bowl of bitter tears. And an earlier poet wrote, “They are going, going, going, and we cannot bid them stay.”

He then called upon the words of Yeats, of Henry Grattan, of John Boyle O’Reilly, of George Bernard Shaw.

To conclude, he quoted poet George William Russell (Æ):

A great Irish poet once wrote: “I believe profoundly … in the future of Ireland … that this is an isle of destiny, that that destiny will be glorious… and that when our hour is come, we will have something to give to the world.”  My friends: Ireland’s hour has come. You have something to give to the world–and that is a future of peace with freedom.

Remarks at a Civic and Academic Reception in St. Patrick’s Hall, Dublin Castle (28 June 1963)

Kennedy praised Ireland for its educational traditions, serving as a beacon for Europe during the Dark Ages.  He compared Ireland to the United States, in its establishment of schools through the Northwest Ordinance and Land Grant colleges.

Remarks at Eyre Square in Galway (29 June 1963)

If the day was clear enough, and if you went down to the bay, and you looked west, and your sight was good enough, you would see Boston, Mass. And if you did, you would see down working on the docks there some Doughertys and Flahertys and Ryans and cousins of yours who have gone to Boston and made good.

I wonder if you could perhaps let me know how many of you here have a relative in America, who you would admit to–if you would hold up your hand? I don’t know what it is about you that causes me to think that nearly everybody in Boston comes from Galway. They are not shy about it, at all.

Remarks at a Reception in Limerick (29 June 1963)

I wonder, before I go, if I could find out how many citizens here have relations in the United States?  Do you think you could hold up your hand, if you do?  No wonder there are so many of them over there.

Well, I will tell you, they have been among the best citizens and they behave themselves very well, and you would be proud of them.  And they are proud of you.  Even though a good many years have passed since most of them left, they still remain and retain the strongest sentiments of affection for this country.  And I hope that this visit that we have been able to make on this occasion has reminded them not only of their past, but also that here in Ireland the word ‘freedom,’ the word ‘independence,’ the whole sentiment of a nation is perhaps stronger than it is almost any place in the world.

He then referenced the role of De Valera:

To see your President, who has played such a distinguished part, whose life is so tied up with the life of this island in this century – all this has made the past very real, and has made the present very hopeful.

Remarks at Shannon Airport Upon Leaving for England (29 June 1963)

In his final remarks in Ireland, Kennedy emphasized the role of history in Irish culture, and the historic connections between Ireland and America through the diaspora:

Ireland is an unusual place.  What happened 500 or 1000 years ago is yesterday; where we on the other side of the Atlantic 3000 miles away, we are next door.  While there may be those removed by two or three generations from Ireland, they may have left 100 years ago their people, and yet when I ask how many people may have relatives in America nearly everybody holds up their hands.

 

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US Presidents and Ireland, Part II

Last week, I looked at how Ulster unionists and the Scotch-Irish memorialized and celebrated their ties to American presidents.  Find the post here.

Now let’s turn to visits by three US presidents to Ireland, Ulysses S. Grant, John F. Kennedy, and Richard Nixon.

ULYSSES S. GRANT

The first American president to visit Ireland was Grant, hero of the American Civil War, after his two rather tumultuous terms as president were over.  While he wished to make a tour of the world as a private citizen, then-President Rutherford B. Hayes encouraged him to take a diplomatic role and attempt to strengthen American interests abroad.

Grant departed Philadelphia on his world tour in May 1877 and arrived in Dublin on 3 January 1879.  He met with Lord Mayor, Sir Jonah Barrington, and was made an honorary citizen.  He toured the Mansion House, Royal Irish Academy, Bank of Ireland, Chamber of Commerce, stock exchange, Trinity College, and City Hall, spending two days touring the city in total.

Grant left Dublin by train on 6 January, stopping in Dundalk, Omagh, and Strabane on the way to Derry.  He did not visit his ancestral homestead at Ballygawley in County Tyrone.  The next day he arrived in Belfast.

From the train-window, Grant saw a perfect sea of heads, which showed the eagerness of the people to honor the distinguished traveller.  The platform of the station was covered with scarlet carpet.  The Mayor and members of the City Council welcomed the General, who descended from the car amid tremendous cheers.  Crowds ran after the carriages containing the city authorities and their illustrious guest, and afterwards surrounded the hotel where the General was entertained.

Belfast might be said to have been en fête, the public buildings were draped with American and English colors, and in a few instances with Orange flags.

–  J.F. Packard, Grant’s Tour Around the World (1880)

Grant viewed City Hall, linen warehouses and factories, and the Harland & Wolff shipyard.  Grant then returned to Dublin and departed for Asia, finally returning to Philadelphia in December 1879.

Grant received a huge welcome in the north compared to his more subdued reception in the south.  As Bernadette Whelan explains, this can be attributed both to his Ulster roots and to the policies of Grant’s Republican Party, which was associated with being pro-British, anti-Catholic, and anti-immigrant.

JOHN F. KENNEDY

If the day was clear enough, and if you went down to the bay and you looked west, and your sight was good enough, you would see Boston, Massachusetts.  And if you did, you would see down working on the docks there some Doughertys and Flahertys and Ryans and cousins of yours who have gone to Boston and made good.

John F. Kennedy in Galway

Kennedy’s visit to Ireland is clearly the most famous of any US president.  As Tom Deignan writes, the trip “is now the stuff of legend.  He met with de Valera and was greeted like a rock star.”

Kennedy came to Ireland as part of a wider European tour, including his infamous trip to Berlin.  He arrived in Dublin from Germany on the evening of 26 June 1963 and was formally welcomed by  Éamon de Valera.  He then traveled by motorcade through the city to Phoenix Park.

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Crowds line the streets of Dublin for JFK’s visit – photo credit: RTÉ

See RTÉ (Telefís Éireann) coverage of Kennedy’s arrival here.

The next day, he toured County Wexford, including visiting New Ross and his ancestral homestead at Dunganstown before returning to Dublin.  On 28 June, he addressed the Houses of the Oireachtas, where he declared, “My friends: Ireland’s hour has come. You have something to give to the world–and that is a future of peace with freedom.” He also memorialized the Easter Rising and Irish participation in the American Civil War, received the freedom of the city, and visited Cork.  On his final day in Ireland, Kennedy traveled to Galway and Limerick before leaving from Shannon.

Transcript of Kennedy’s speech before the Irish Parliament.

RTÉ has an extensive online exhibit of coverage from Kennedy’s trip.

RICHARD NIXON

Nixon arrived at Shannon on the evening of 3 October 1970 and stayed for two nights in Limerick.  He and his wife, Pat, visited her ancestral hometown in Mayo, then went to the home of his Quaker ancestors in County Kildare at Timahoe where he enjoyed a positive reception.

I do proudly claim, as do almost all successful American politicians, an Irish background.

-Richard Nixon

He toured County Kildare before heading to Dublin.  In the midst of the Vietnam War, Nixon faced protests and even attempted eggings of his motorcade as he was driven through the city.  He met with Jack Lynch at Dublin Castle before leaving Dublin on 5 October.

RTÉ Radio 1 documentary on Nixon’s visit

Nixon’s speech at Timahoe, County Kildare

The Irish in a Colorado Mining Town: A Look at Leadville

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Church of the Annunciation, Leadville, CO – photo credit: L. Flewelling

In the nineteenth century, the Irish were the second largest foreign-born ethnic group in Colorado, with the major sites of Irish settlement at Denver, Leadville, and Cripple Creek. The earliest Irish migrants in Colorado were miners, railroad workers, soldiers, and domestic servants.  In Denver, many Irish worked as common laborers.

In 1877, miners in Lake County realized that the black sand they had been tossing off to the side when looking for gold was actually silver.  This led to a silver boom, causing the city of Leadville to spring up overnight.  By far the largest ethnic group in Leadville was the Irish, and Leadville became the most Irish city in the Rocky Mountain region by 1880.  About 9% of the population had been born in Ireland and another 7% were second generation Irish Americans.  The majority of Irish were miners, and like most groups in Colorado at this time, were mostly men.

Irish women in Leadville were housewives, domestic servants, laundresses, about six were prostitutes, and there were also several nuns who worked as nurses at St Vincent’s Hospital.

In Leadville, the Irish mainly settled on the east side of town, with 6th street as the main thoroughfare.  Because they were the largest ethnic group, they had a large impact on the town as it grew.  They had their own Catholic church, the Church of the Annunciation, which was founded in 1879.  There was also St Vincent’s Hospital and St Mary’s Catholic School.  The names of the mines also reflect the Irish presence.  Many of them are name after people or groups from Irish nationalism: Robert Emmet, Wolfe Tone, O’Donovan Rossa, Fenian Queen, and Charles Stewart Parnell.  Others have more general Irish cultural links: O’Sullivan, Murphy, Fitzjames, Letterkenny, Mary Murphy, Red-Headed Mary, Seamus O’Brien, Fitzhugh, Donovan, O’Brien, and Maid of Erin.

The most well-known people of Leadville were also Irish.  Molly Brown and her husband J.J. were the children of Irish immigrants.  Baby Doe Tabor, whose birth name was Elizabeth McCourt, was also the daughter of Irish immigrants.  Her husband, Colorado Lieutenant Governor Horace Tabor, was known to support the Irish nationalist movement.

Irish nationalism was a huge cause for the Irish immigrants in Leadville.  Nationally, Leadville ranked third in money donated to the Irish Land League, behind only Philadelphia and Chicago.  Leadville formed its own branches of the Land League and the Ladies’ Land League, and also had other Irish societies, the Knights of Robert Emmet, the Ancient Order of Hibernians, and the Daughters of Erin.  The Irish also had their own local militai, the Wolfe Tone Guards.

Both Leadville and Denver’s Irish populations were well-organized and supportive of nationalist causes, and this led several Irish nationalists to include both cities in their fundraising tours of the United States.  This included two visits by the founder of the Land League, Michael Davitt, as well as the treasurer and secretary of the Land League and several members of the Irish Parliamentary Party.  Oscar Wilde also came to Denver and Leadville in 1882.  He gave a talk on art and aesthetics to the miners at the Tabor Opera House and became legendary in the area for the amount of whiskey he consumed.

Along with their nationalist activism, the Irish in Leadville were known for their participation in local labor movements.  They were associated with the leadership of two major strikes in Leadville, the first a 23-day strike in 1880 and the second a much longer strike from 19 June 1896 to 9 March 1897.  Labor activism fit well with Irish land agitation and calls for self-government.  In fact all three of these movements had been tied together through the most prominent Irish American newspaper, the Irish World.  The newspaper’s founder and editor, Patrick Ford, promoted Irish nationalism and American labor activism, and his paper was circulated around the country, even to places as distant as Leadville before it had railroad access.

In both of the Leadville strikes, the miners’ unions were led by Irish miners, demanding higher pay and shorter working days.  In both cases, the strikes were put down by the Colorado National Guard.  While the 1880 strike was peaceful, the 1896 strike became violent, with armed strikers attacking the mines.  At least eight miners were killed.

In 1896, Leadville’s branch of the Loyal Orange Institution was founded.  In North America, the Orange Order had a by far larger presence in Canada, with a weaker organization in the United States.  In Colorado, the oldest and largest Orange presence was in Denver.  The timing of the foundation of the Orange lodge in Leadville is interesting, as the population of Leadville had been drastically declining since the 1893 silver crash.  So why would smaller numbers of people want to form a new organization at this time?  It’s possible that the Irish and Scotch-Irish Protestants were attempting to dissociate themselves from the Irish Americans who were leading the miners’ strike, who they would have considered radical, extreme, and at the bottom of the social ladder.

The Orange lodge in Cripple Creek was also founded soon after the Cripple Creek miners’ strike, which was also heavily associated with Irish American-led labor agitation.

It’s difficult to track just low large of a presence the Orange Order and other Scotch-Irish migrants would have had in Colorado, because the peak of emigration from Ireland was farther in the past.  They might be lumped in with second-generation Irish Americans from Canada, Pennsylvania, New York, and Michigan, where the Orange Order was strongest.

After the silver crash of 1893 and the strike of 1896, the productivity and population of Leadville declined drastically.  In 1900, 8,900 people lived there, and by 1910, it was down to 4,400.  Many of the Irish miners moved on to different mines in the west, while others moved to Denver.  By 1910, 44% of the Irish in Colorado lived in Denver, part of the total of 63% of the Irish population living on the Front Range.  Those who remained in Colorado were more urban and middle class than the working class miners.

The Irish in Colorado continued to be active in the labor movement, including the leaders of the Cripple Creek miners’ strike in 1903-4 and Mary Harris Jones, known as “Mother Jones,” who was born in County Cork and was active in supporting miners during the Ludlow Massacre.  The Irish worked in the coal mines along the Front Range, became police officers and firefighters in Denver, supported the expanding Catholic church in the region, and continued to participate in fraternal societies such as the Knights of Columbus.  Éamon de Valera, the president of the Irish parliament, visited Denver as part of his fundraising tour of the United States in 1919, highlighting continued support for Irish nationalism.

Additional Readings:

David M. Emmons, Beyond the American Pale: The Irish in the West, 1845-1910 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010).

Dennis Gallagher, Thomas J. Noel, and James Patrick Walsh, Irish Denver (Charleston: Arcadia, 2012).

James Patrick Walsh, Michael Mooney and the Leadville Irish: Respectability and Resistance at 10,200 Feet, 1875-1900 (Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Colorado Boulder, 2010).