It all started with a Canadian fisheries treaty with the United States in 1923. Normally, when Canada concluded fisheries agreements, they were signed on Canada’s behalf by the British Ambassador to the United States. But in this case, for the first time the signature of a Canadian minister, Ernest Lapointe, was attached to the treaty. And this precedent opened the door for the nascent Irish Free State to operate a foreign policy independent of the United Kingdom.
W.T. Cosgrave – photo credit: wikimedia commons
As pro-Treaty forces gained control of the Irish government following the Civil War, the policy of the ruling party, Cumann na nGaedheal, and the first President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State, W.T. Cosgrave, was to critically engage with the Commonwealth. Cumann na nGaedheal essentially controlled a one-party state because the party receiving the second most votes in the initial elections, Sinn Féin, refused to take its seats. Cumann na nGaedheal worked to develop precedents, international relationships, and participation in transnational organizations which would allow Ireland to assert itself as a legitimate, independent nation on equal standing with the other nations of the world. Continue reading
For the past few weeks I have been writing about the digitised sources available for historians and genealogists (family historians) alike for finding out information about Canada’s Loyalist ancestors. I wanted to take a slightly different perspective on the blog today by looking at what it meant to be a Loyalist.
Who were the Loyalists?
United Empire Loyalists were men and women who were in the thirteen colonies in America and who opposed the American revolution. Estimates of their numbers vary, but there were perhaps around 50,000 Loyalists.
These were people who:
- lived in the American colonies as of 19 April 1775 (the date of the Battles of Lexington and Concord) and either joined the Royal Standard before 1783’s Treaty of Separation (aka the Treaty of Paris) or demonstrated loyalty to the Crown, and settled in British-held territory, OR
- were soldiers who had served in an American Loyalist Regiment and then relocated to Canada, OR
- were members of the Six Nations of either the Grand River or the Bay of Quinte Reserve and were descended from those whose migration patterns were similar to the Loyalists’.
There were Loyalist regiments, Loyalist forts and garrisons, and Loyalist settlements. Continue reading