Port Dover is a small town in southern Ontario, Canada, on the coast of Lake Erie. Now famous for its Friday the 13th gatherings of motorcyclists from across Canada and the USA, the town was settled by Loyalists in the 1790s and saw action during the War of 1812. Continue reading
In honour of Canada’s 150th birthday, we have been making our way across Canada on the blog via webcams! You can revisit our look at the Maritimes, Quebec, Ontario, and the Prairies, and travel northwest with us as we wrap up our survey of some of the great online views of Canada.
I’ve learned a lot as I’ve virtually travelled across the country seeking out webcams aimed at great views and historic places. Continue reading
Parliament Hill, Ottawa
There has been a webcam aimed at Parliament Hill since 1995 (Find out more in this article from the CBC)! This webcam, mounted on the Birks Building on Sparks Street in Ottawa, shows views of Centre Block, the impressive Peace Tower, and the Centennial Flame (at the centre bottom of the screen) in the grounds of the Parliament Buildings. The flame has been burning since Centennial Year (1967).
The webcam requires refreshing of the page, but it’s a great view of the beautiful building that was rebuilt in 1917 following a massive fire. Continue reading
On May 10, 2016, the most recent Canadian census took place. Of course, Canadians had from the 2nd to complete their forms, but the information given was meant to reflect a ‘snapshot’ of life in the country on the 10th of May.
Censuses have been conducted in one or more regions of what is now Canada since the mid-17th century. All of the Canadian territories have been surveyed via a census every 10 years since 1851 and every 5 years since 1901. Continue reading
Canadians of my generation learned their key moments in Canadian history via short television commercial segments produced by what is now Historica Canada. Known as Heritage Minutes, these short films were sent to schools, made available on tape, DVD, and online, and played during commercial breaks. They taught students and television viewers of all ages what was important in the history of our nation. The segments produced memorable catch phrases (such as the classic, ‘Doctor, I smell burnt toast!’) and have sparked numerous parodies over the years (the Rick Mercer Report‘s are always a favourite). Continue reading
Canada is turning 150 this year!!! We’ll be celebrating with a number of posts devoted to Canadian history and culture as well as sharing information on some of the planned programmes and activities that will be taking place across the country in honour of the country’s sesquicentennial.
Canada is a young nation. In secondary school-level Canadian history classes, students are taught that Canada began to assert itself as an independent nation at the dawn of the Second World War. Continue reading
Many Canadians have ancestors who remained loyal to the British Crown in the American revolution and, having found themselves on the losing side of the war, were forced to rebuild their lives in Britain’s Canadian colonies.
Today, Canadian descendants of Loyalists can still apply to the UELAC (United Empire Loyalists Association of Canada) to include the initials UE (for Unity of Empire) after their names because the title is hereditary. This is a unique quality amongst Canadian honours. It doesn’t come with any special status or rewards anymore, but at one time it was worth 200 acres of land.
The post-nominal letters and this designation come from Lord Dorcester’s 1789 Proclamation, in which he notes:
Those Loyalists who have adhered to the unity of the Empire, and joined the Royal Standard before the Treaty of Separation in the year 1783, and all their children and their descendants by either sex, are to be distinguished by the following capitals, affixed to their names: U.E. alluding to their great principle the unity of the Empire.
To qualify for this designation, one needs to complete a Loyalist Certificate Application. If you’re interested in gaining this designation, a first step would be to contact your local chapter of the UELAC to find out about joining the network and putting together an application with a volunteer from the organisation.
It’s also worth searching online for previously-approved applications that are published on the website. Not only might you find that your ancestor has already been proven to have been Loyalist, but the application should also include details about where the applicant found proof. This can be a very useful shortcut for digging up the primary sources for yourself, especially since (as we’ve seen) searching can be a frustrating, time-consuming activity.
For example, applications have been made by a very distant cousin of mine for both Jacob and Henry Anguish who are also my direct ancestors. This person’s applications included details about their military experience and where to find them in the records, and the applicant was kind enough to share their documents online. This also means that Jacob and Henry are now listed in UELAC’s Loyalist Directory.
You can also follow the UELAC on Twitter @.
Over the past month I’ve been looking at Loyalist history and the records that have been preserved and digitised for historians and family historians alike to use to find out more about the early European and Loyalist American settlers in Upper Canada (now Ontario). Several of my ancestors were Loyalists who settled near the shores of Lake Erie in Upper Canada and many of their descendants are still living in the region.
Today I wanted to demonstrate what can be found within these records. I did this briefly with my look at Jacob Anguish’s request for aid that is found in the Haldimand Papers. Today I want to show what can be found across a range of sources for one person, namely Henry Anguish, Jacob’s son.
Henry is my 5x great-grandfather. Over the course of his life he moved from Canadian to American-held territories and back again. This demonstrates the fluidity of movement across borders during peacetime between the Canadian and American territories. He was one of the first Europeans settlers in the area of Tonawanda, New York. By opening the first tavern in the area in 1811 and creating the first building in what would become the village and then town, he is sometimes referred to as the town’s founder. However, he ultimately settled in Rainham Township in Haldimand County, Upper Canada.
So we know that Henry’s father was a Loyalist and that after the war his family’s land in Pennsylvania was no longer theirs. We know that he moved several times in his life. What details can the records fill in for us? Let’s take a look through the different sources that I’ve been writing about.
The Haldimand Papers
My first stop is the Index pages on the reel, C-1475, to look up Henry Anguish. The reel shows that a Henry Anguish is found at volume 105, p. 385, and volume 166, p. 81. Below the typed list of Anguishes there’s a note to see Anguish for Angust; this indicates that there must be places in the records where the last name was written as Angust. I should mention that there are a number of Anguishes in the list. In order to be satisfied that I had found everything, I would look up every one to see if they happen to also mention Henry.
Now we need to find which digitised microfilm reels contain volumes 105 and 166. Library and Archives Canada have put the four volumes that they consider to be ‘Loyalist Volumes’ all on one reel, C-1475, the same one we used above for the index Now it’s just a matter of finding the right page in the right volume. For ease of future searching, I’m noting the start pages of each volume here:
This should help us pretend that they are proper volumes and not one large, artificially created microfilm reel. It’ll also speed things up.
First we want to find Henry in Volume 105 Page 385. This is found through a lot of ‘hit and miss’ work with pages, because the pages aren’t all there. Unfortunately, when I did find the image it’s pretty poor quality (see below).What we have here is a list of Loyalist families that are under the command of Captain Lewis Geneway and the rations allotted to them. Geneway was a Captain in Butler’s Rangers, the regiment Jacob had fought with.
Henry is listed with his family on the right side of the page:
This segment of the list shows that Henry is 18. He is with his father, Jacob (age 63), his mother Elizabeth (age 54), older brother Jacob (20), and younger sisters Anna (16), who was initially left out by the transcriber) and Elizabeth (10). The family is entitled to 2 rations. Extrapolating from information on slightly clearer pages, it looks like this list is from 30 November 1783, the year before Jacob applies for aid for his family.
Next, we want to find Henry in Volume 166 page 81. Henry August is listed next to a Hanah August on a list of Loyalists from 1 August 1787 who are about to lose their right to provisions. Henry August is noted as being 14 and fit for service. As Henry’s last name is different, Anna’s (or Hanah’s) entire name is spelled incorrectly, neither are the expected age, they are not situated with their family, and they are in Montreal (we don’t know where they were in the first list, but have no evidence that they did not stay in the Niagara region where Jacob had been treated), we can’t be sure that this is the same Henry. However, we’ll keep it in our notes.
Upper Canada Land Petitions
My first stop is Library and Archives Canada’s Search page for the Land Petitions of Upper Canada, 1763-1865. A quick search for the surname Anguish brings up 15 results; Henry is first.
Then, starting with the Microfilm reference in the far right column, C-1609, I search for the item with the digitised, microfilmed Upper Canada Land Petitions. Henry petition is number 27 in volume 1, so I thought I wouldn’t have to dig through too many images, but I was wrong, as volume 1 isn’t the first volume on the reel. Also, it’s important to note that the Haldimand Papers are numbered by page, but the UC Land Petitions are numbered by petition, so I am looking for Petition 27, not page 27 (like I would if I was searching in the Haldimand Papers).
Henry’s petition is found on page 276 of reel C-1609. It is addressed to John Graves Simcoe, the Governor of Upper Canada, and dated 11 May 1796. The petition tells us that Henry has lived in Upper Canada since 1778 and has about 50 acres of land which isn’t enough to support his family, which now consists of his wife and their four children. He states that his father served in the war under John Butler and his wife’s father had been a Sergeant in the same regiment. He concludes by praying that his request will be granted as they will suffer if it isn’t, and signs his name to the petition.
The following page records the reply: Henry and his wife are to be granted 200 acres of land each. In the reply they specifically note that Henry’s wife is the daughter of a Loyalist.
Land Boards of Upper Canada
Names contained within the records of the Land Boards of Upper Canada can be searched for on Library and Archives Canada’s search page. A quick search for Henry Anguish leads us to a digital record of where he can be found in their list of land recipients:
The record here could be quite misleading. While the year given is 1802, when you find the actual entry in the manuscript, the date of the land grant was 12 May 1796. We already know this from our search above. The 1802 comes from the list of the Attorney General as they attempt to track all of the land grants, as the grant is recorded in the Land Board’s records on 24 March 1802. You can see the actual entry in my earlier post on Loyalist records.
Upper Canada Land Books
The Upper Canada Land Books provide information on where people can be found in the records. There’s no online search, but the index volumes are useful. Using the Land Books takes time and their intention is to refer you to where the actual records are. Here are the two record cards for Henry Anguish, found in Image 2821 and Image 2822:
Heir and Devisee Commission records
As we’ve noted, the online search available for these records only applies to those from the Second Heir and Devisee Commission which did not deal with Loyalists, but instead with their descendants’ applications for land. The only Anguish found in the Second Commission’s records is Lewis, Henry’s son (and my 4x great-grandfather) and shows that Lewis was granted land in Rainham township in 1841. The search results also give us useful details for tracking down Lewis’s grant in the records.
Without an online search for the time period I’m interested in, I have yet to find henry in the documents. There are a couple things I can do. First, I can perform an online search using a general search engine such as Google to see if someone else has found Henry in the records and has provided the details on where to find him. Second, I can try to find out where the land was granted (it appears to be Nassau, according to the Land Books we looked at above) and then find the set of records here that relate to Nassau and search for Henry within them.
The Nassau District becomes known as the Home District in 1792. This index to the records indicates that a number of volumes relate specifically to the Home District, but these often lead to summaries of the number of land claims rather than information on the individual claimants. Therefore, it’s possible that Henry is simply included in number of claimants given for a specific year or time period, rather than by name.
I hope what we can take from this search is that we can find out a lot of information about Loyalists and their families in the digitised sources. In some case this information includes interesting little details and insights into the lives, locations, living conditions, and the needs of early settlers in Upper Canada, while in other records these men and women and the documents they created have been amalgamated into the bigger picture of the European and American settlement of early Canada after 1776. When combined with some of the excellent recent works on Loyalist history and the history of Upper Canada, these stories of individuals bring the larger studies to life.
For the last few weeks I’ve been writing quite a bit about using digitised Loyalist documents (check out my reflections on the struggles inherent in finding specific records and my detailed look at an injured Loyalist’s plea for financial support for his family). I’m thinking that a well-organised overview of some of the digitised sources I’ve been using and writing about might be in order. The resources are presented in a confusing enough way on their own sites; here we might be able to make a bit more sense of them.
Search Page: The papers have not been transcribed and there is no online searchable index. There is, however, microfilm reel C-1475 that contains a typed index of names. Watch out for misspelled names and try to think up and look for alternative spellings. Also look for potential relatives; if a specific person you are looking for is not in the index, they may still be mentioned near a relative’s name in the actual records and were simply missed. This guide from Olive Tree Genealogy provides a helpful introduction.
Actual Digitised Microfilm Reels: Haldimand Papers
What you might find: 48 reels of documents in English that are preserved in the British Library. These documents are copies of the originals that were rewritten in the 19th century. Sir Frederick Haldimand was the Governor of Quebec (at the time this included present-day Ontario) from 1778-1786. In these reels can be found all types of correspondence and some tables and charts recording names, locations, individual stories and experiences, financial support, encampments, lists of soldiers in specific regiments, and so on.
Upper Canada Land Petitions (1763-1865), aka Land Petitions of/for Upper Canada
Search Page: Library and Archives Canada search
Actual Digitised Microfilm Reels: Upper Canada Land Petitions
What you might find: 327 digitised microfilm reels containing details of Loyalists and their descendants who are submitting a claim or ‘petition’ to an initial or additional grant of land in the newly-created Upper Canada. Their requests contain varying levels of details and may also include additional supporting documents as well as information on whether a grant was made, why or why not, and what the grant entailed. Requests from the descendants of Loyalists tend to provide useful information for genealogists and those interested in family history because the petitioner has to outline their heritage to justify their claim.
Land Boards of Upper Canada, 1765-1804
Search Page: Library and Archives Canada search
Actual Digitised Microfilm Reels: Minutes and records of the Land Boards accumulated by the Executive Council Office
What you might find: Minutes and records of the Land Boards of Upper Canada, including letters with detailed information about individuals and charts recording the most basic information about land recipients (name, amount of land granted, and date of the grant). These records were created by the Land Boards as they tried to keep track of who had been granted land in Upper Canada.
Upper Canada Land Books
Actual Digitised Microfilm Reels: Upper Canada Land Books
What you might find: 41 reels of ‘finding aids’ in the form of thousands of filmed index cards with names that are related to requests and decisions about land grants in Upper Canada. These cards, organised in alphabetical order by the petitioner’s last name, refer to other sources where a request was recorded. Maybe someday we’ll have a version that is digitally linked to the sources referred to in the cards…
Heir and Devisee Commission records
Actual Digitised Microfilm Reels: Heir and Devisee
What you might find: 21 digitised microfilm reels recording the workings of the Heir and Devisee Commission, including legal documents, testimony, copies of wills and mortgages, and other information that was required by and sent to the Commission by claimants wishing to receive confirmation of land ownership. In other cases, information is displayed in the form of a chart (as above). Some volumes begin with an index. The major differences between the First and Second Heir and Devisee Commissions is time period — the First is for the period 1797-1804, the Second is 1805 and onwards — and the claimants. Only descendants were dealt with by the Second Commission. Most of the original nominees had died by this point, and those who remained could apply directly to the Surveyor General for their patent (the confirmation of land ownership).
In my next posts, I’ll give some more background information on the Loyalists and I show how I’ve used each of these records in my search for a certain Loyalist ancestor, Henry Anguish.
I recently wrote about some of the great online resources now available for conducting research into Loyalist history and experiences in early Canada, and alongside this I reflected upon some of the struggles that go along with trying to search through and utilise these great records. As databases that are very much the straight-forward digitisation of microfilm reels made in the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, rather than having been created as an online resource, they are not user-friendly. They are simply organised by microfilm reel. Their related search engines have limited scope (usually just name and location) and give detailed information on where to find associated records in the microfilm, but no links to the digitised version of the source. At times it can be difficult to simply find the online database itself!
In my experience, searching for Loyalist records online involves a lot of jumping around from website to website, trying to find the search page and the actual digitised resources, translating the microfilm details from your search into something that’s meaningful for the online, digitised ‘reels’, jumping from image to image within the designated reel to find the correct volume and then the correct page, and then, if the quality of the decades-old microfilmed image was good and the digitised image of the microfilm sufficient, working your way through the text.
It seems to me that a lot of this confusion could be cleared up by a simple reorganisation of the digitised files. Instead of listing them by microfilm reel (each of which could hold several volumes and over a thousand images), they should really be separated out into volumes and listed on their website by volume. This list of the volumes could then be cross-referenced to the ‘original’ microfilm reel number for researchers who already have that information. The actual documents themselves, at least in the case of the Haldimand Papers and the Land Petitions, were clearly organised into separate volumes when they were rewritten by hand for preservation. These volumes have title pages and tables of contents or indexes to help researchers. The microfilm reels ignore these tools because of their format, but there’s no reason to reproduce the format of a microfilm reel online. But I digress.
At least three of my male ancestors were Loyalists who fought for the British in the Revolutionary War and later settled in Canada with their families. I’ve mentioned before that I have found one of my 6x great-grandfathers, Jacob Anguish, in Héritage‘s digitised reels of the formerly microfilmed Haldimand Papers. Jacob and his family had been living in Pennsylvania and joined Butler’s Rangers, a Loyalist Regiment, in 1777. He was captured following the Battle of Oriskany and imprisoned in Hartford, where he suffered irreparable damage to his health. Members of his family can also be found in various Loyalist-related records from Upper Canada, and his son Henry’s descendants are found in the Canadian County Atlases. A number of Loyalists from Butler’s Rangers ultimately settled in the Niagara region, as Earnest Alexander Cruikshank’s The Story of Butler’s Rangers and the Settlement of Niagara (1893) recalls.
I thought that I would reproduce some of his testimony here to demonstrate how valuable these papers can be.
To Lieut. Col. De Peyster Commanding Niagara, etc., etc.,
The Petition of Jacob Anguish, Late a Ranger in Lieut. Col. Butler’s Corps., Most Humbly Sheweth,
That Your Petitioner in the year 1777 quitted his habitation near the Susquehanna, and joined Lieut. Col. Butler, under whose command he went on the Expedition against Fort Stanwix, and was present at the Battle of Orisca.
That when the army retreated, he obtained permission from Lieut. Col. St. Ledger to return home in order to bring off his family; but having the misfortune to be taken Prisoner on his journey, he was put into a Dungeon in Hartford where he was detained nine months.
The letter goes on to detail how, after being released due to ill health, Jacob manages to return home, only to find that his family is missing. He returns to Butler’s Rangers, but the damage done to his foot and leg from lying on the frozen ground of the dungeon ultimately means that he must lose his leg at the Garrison Hospital in Niagara, is still unwell, and can no longer support his found family. Therefore, this letter was created as the result of his request for financial aid, not necessarily for himself (it’s noted that he’s now 59 and may not live long due to his ill health), but for his wife and family:
That your petitioner humbly hopes, that in case he should not recover from the operation, His Excellency will nevertheless extend his Bounty towards his helpless widow now between fifty and sixty years of age.
The letter is signed with Jacob’s mark, an ‘X’. This indicates that Jacob is illiterate and has dictated the story to an agent. Jacob’s statement regarding his health and fitness is corroborated by John Butler in a short statement following the petition, dated 4 August 1784, at Niagara.
As you can see from just one letter, the Haldimand Papers give insight into the experiences of normal soldiers and immigrants who found themselves on the losing side of a war that resulted in them never being able to return ‘home’. They add names to the battles, information about background and details of locations, and even insights into the history of medicine and prison conditions. They have preserved the stories of men and women who could not write their own story, albeit in a formalised style and interpreted by someone else. For example, additional research has shown that Jacob’s last name was probably Enckisch; he has been identified as a German immigrant who arrived in Philadelphia on 9 September 1751 on the ship, The Patience, so his name here has been anglicised.
You can find the full text of Jacob’s petition in the Haldimand Papers amongst Héritage’s digitised collections. Next week, I’ll provide an overview of some of the digitised record collections and search engines to pull all of these resources together.