Summer Book Club: Seeley’s The Expansion of England

You are asked to think over English history as a whole and consider if you cannot find some meaning, some method in it, if you cannot state some conclusion to which it leads.  Hitherto perhaps you have learned names and dates, lists of kings, lists of battles and wars.  The time comes now when you are to ask yourselves, To what end?  For what practical purpose are these facts collected and committed to memory?  If they lead to no great truths having at the same time scientific generality and momentous practical bearings, then history is but an amusement and will scarcely hold its own in the conflict of studies…. No one can long study history without being haunted by the idea of development, of progress.

J.R. Seeley wrote these words as part of a series of lectures he gave at the University of Cambridge in 1881 and 1882, published as The Expansion of England: Two Courses of Lectures in 1883.  Seeley was a professor of modern history at Cambridge from 1869 to 1895.

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John Robert Seeley – photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

Seeley examined modern British history with the goal of answering the question of what direction the world was headed.  His answer? Toward liberty, democracy, and the advancement of “greater” Britain. Continue reading

More Maps: John Speed’s Depictions of Ireland

Today we’re taking a look at John Speed’s depictions of Ireland in his Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine, published in 1611/1612.  Speed (1552-1629), the best-known mapmaker of his era, included an overview of Ireland and maps of each province in his atlas.  As I described in a previous post, Speed used previously compiled sources to inform his atlas, but made the maps and other elements himself.

John Speed, Kingdome of Ireland - photo credit: British Library

John Speed, Kingdome of Ireland – photo credit: British Library

R. Dudley Edwards and Mary O’Dowd noted the importance of Speed’s maps in their Sources for Early Modern Irish History, 1534-1641, writing:

Among the most ambitious projects commissioned by a London bookseller in the early seventeenth century was John Speed’s Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain, which appeared in 1611.  Speed devoted special attention to Ireland for which he provided a general map of the country and separate provincial maps.  This gives him, in the opinion of J.H. Andrews, the claim to be, in the eyes of contemporaries, the author of the definitive map as known till the mid seventeenth century in Britain and abroad.  Speed’s work was based on some of the ‘regional surveys, especially in the north, as well as Mercator’s general map of 1595, and, less, happily, Boazio.’  His work included the first printed plans for the towns of Dublin, Cork, Galway and Limerick.  As Dr. Nuala Burke pointed out, Speed’s work was not necessarily up to date.  She considers, however, that Speed can be regarded as giving a ‘reasonably correct general impression of the actual early seventeenth century topography,’ though there can be errors in matters of detail.

While this was considered the definitive map of Ireland and its provinces for its time, there are biases and agendas at work in Speed’s depictions.  Continue reading

Canada’s 2016 Census: the Long-Form’s Return

Canada’s 2016 Census: the Long-Form’s Return

On May 10, 2016, the most recent Canadian census took place. Of course, Canadians had from the 2nd to complete their forms, but the information given was meant to reflect a ‘snapshot’ of life in the country on the 10th of May.

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Censuses have been conducted in one or more regions of what is now Canada since the mid-17th century. All of the Canadian territories have been surveyed via a census every 10 years since 1851 and every 5 years since 1901. Continue reading

Oscar Wilde in Leadville, Colorado

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Harper’s Bazaar 10 June 1882

I came across this Thomas Nast cartoon earlier this week.  The caption reads, “Wilde on US.  Something to “Live Up” to in America.”

“Mr. Oscar Wilde has lately delivered a lecture in New York on Art Decoration…. In all his travels, he says, the only well-dressed men he has seen have been the miners of the Rocky Mountains.  ‘Their wide-brimmed hats, which shade their faces from the sun and protect them from the rain, and the cloak, which is by far the most beautiful piece of drapery ever invented, may well be dwelt on with admiration.  Their high boots, too, were sensible and practical.  They only wore what was comfortable, and therefore beautiful.'”

At the top of the cartoon are sketches of boxers, a liquor bottle, fighting roosters, and houses with the caption “Leadville.”

You can find more about the history of the Irish in the silver mining town of Leadville, CO in my post here.  As part of his tour of the United States in 1882, Wilde traveled to Leadville, Denver, and Colorado Springs.  He gave a talk to Leadville’s miners at the Tabor Opera House on art and aesthetics, and drank a remarkable amount of whiskey.

In his Impressions of America, Wilde noted:

From Salt Lake City one travels over the great plains of Colorado and up the Rocky Mountains, on the top of which is Leadville, the richest city in the world.  It has also got the reputation of being the roughest, and every man carries a  revolver.  I was told that if I went there they would be sure to shoot me or my travelling manager.  I wrote and told them that nothing that they could do to my travelling manager would intimidate me.  They are miners – men working in metals, so I lectured to them on the Ethics of Art.  I read them passages from the autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini and they seemed much delighted.  I was reproved by my hearers for not having brought him with me.  I explained that he had been dead for some time which elicited the enquiry ‘Who shot him’?  They afterwards took me to a dancing saloon where I saw the only rational method of art criticism I have ever come across.  Over the piano was printed a notice:

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Oscar Wilde, Impressions of America

The mortality among pianists in that place is marvellous.

More Maps: John Speed’s Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine

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Photo Credit: Cambridge University Library; Creative Commons License

Back with more historic maps which may be useful for generating class discussion on how such sources illustrate perceptions and views of the British and Irish in the wider world.

Today we’re highlighting the first atlas to cover the British Isles as a whole, as well as the first work to make comprehensive plans of many English and Welsh towns available in print. English historian and geographer John Speed’s Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine was published in 1611/1612, with a print run of approximately 500 copies. Each of the English and Welsh counties and the four provinces of Ireland was separately depicted, along with a larger view of Scotland.

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Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

Speed used previously compiled sources to inform his Theatre, but he made the maps and other elements himself.  The maps are rich with details of local history, fashions, and features, all of which would be useful in the classroom to provide a view of life in the Tudor and Jacobean eras.

With the publication of the Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine, Speed was well on his way to becoming the best-known mapmaker of his era.

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Photo credit: Cambridge University Library; Creative Commons License

Cambridge University Library has a remarkable digital resource utilizing one of their five proof copies of Speed’s atlas.  It can be found here.

Additional Sources:

Annie Taylor, “A Theatre of Treasures,” Cambridge University Special Collections.

Ashley Baynton-Williams, John Speed Biography Part I, Part II, and Part III.

“Mapping the Origins of a Masterpiece,” University of Cambridge.

My New Article in Slavery & Abolition

My New Article in Slavery & Abolition

Hello 2017! It’s great to be back and to be blogging again. It’s been a busy few weeks, as I’m sure it’s been for all of you, too! Probably the most exciting professional development for me is that my new article has been published in Slavery & Abolition!

You might remember that last spring I wrote about the Wellesley Index and how great this resource is for finding out about authorship of anonymously written articles in popular 19th century periodicals. Continue reading

The United Kingdom and Ireland from the International Space Station

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London at Night – photo credit: NASA/Cmdr Chris Hadfield (wikimedia commons)

As an historian of the modern era, it’s easy for me to get caught up in the details and events of the past that can easily be related to the current day without considering that I am only looking at a tiny slice of human history.  I’ve been thinking about different ways in which to perceive and wrap my mind around the vast scope of the history of humanity, and our current-day place in it.

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Dublin from the ISS – photo credit: NASA/Cmdr Chris Hadfield (wikimedia commons)

One way that came to mind was to look at the world from an outside vantage point – from space.  This might be a good way to present the scope of history to students as well, as a means to spark conversation.

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Thames Topsoil Flow – photo credit: NASA/Cmdr Chris Hadfield (wikimedia commons)

Canadian Astronaut Chris Hadfield, who took over 45,000 pictures of Earth in his five months on the International Space Station, writes that seeing the world from a different angle helped him to understand the world better.

Those spectacular, two-thousand-mile views make you a lot more aware of the big picture.

Every landscape, whether man-made or wholly natural, has a backstory.  Going to space forced me to figure some of them out – and doing that has changed, irrevocably, the way I perceive the world.  For instance, I have a much deeper appreciation for the immensity of time.  Today, driving down the highway near my house, I pass a hill and register not just a hump of rocky soil, but also the glacier that clawed and bumped it into existence thousands of years ago.  I recognize the vast lakes and rivers near my home for what they really are: comparatively puny remnants of an enormous inland body of water, whose traces I saw from the ISS.

Being able to perceive the narrative line behind our planet’s shapes, shadows and colors is a bit like having a sixth sense.  It provides a new perspective; we are small, so much smaller even than we may have thought.  To me, that’s not a frightening idea.  It’s a helpful corrective to the frantic self-importance we are prone to as a species – and also a reminder to make the most of our moment on this beautiful, strange, durable yet fragile planet.

– Chris Hadfield, You Are Here: Around the World in 92 Minutes (2014)

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Wales from the International Space Station – photo credit: NASA/Cmdr Hadfield (Wikimedia Commons)

Hadfield writes,

Europe’s multiple personalities, apparent even 240 miles above Earth, were shaped by the whims of geology and climate – but also because of millennia of cultivation by different groups of humans with evolving ideas about how to make the most of a relatively small continent.

Seeing the world from afar can help in understanding how geography and geology have influenced human movements and choices (and how humans have impacted the world).   It can highlight interconnections that we might not have noticed before, or barriers.  It illustrates change and continuity over the long scale of history that can be hard to grasp from the modernist perspective.

 

Using the Records Loyalists Left Behind: The Search for Henry Anguish

Using the Records Loyalists Left Behind: The Search for Henry Anguish

Over the past month I’ve been looking at Loyalist history and the records that have been preserved and digitised for historians and family historians alike to use to find out more about the early European and Loyalist American settlers in Upper Canada (now Ontario). Several of my ancestors were Loyalists who settled near the shores of Lake Erie in Upper Canada and many of their descendants are still living in the region.

Today I wanted to demonstrate what can be found within these records. I did this briefly with my look at Jacob Anguish’s request for aid that is found in the Haldimand Papers. Today I want to show what can be found across a range of sources for one person, namely Henry Anguish, Jacob’s son.

Henry is my 5x great-grandfather. Over the course of his life he moved from Canadian to American-held territories and back again. This demonstrates the fluidity of movement across borders during peacetime between the Canadian and American territories. He was one of the first Europeans settlers in the area of Tonawanda, New York. By opening the first tavern in the area in 1811 and creating the first building in what would become the village and then town, he is sometimes referred to as the town’s founder. However, he ultimately settled in Rainham Township in Haldimand County, Upper Canada.

So we know that Henry’s father was a Loyalist and that after the war his family’s land in Pennsylvania was no longer theirs. We know that he moved several times in his life. What details can the records fill in for us? Let’s take a look through the different sources that I’ve been writing about.

The Haldimand Papers

My first stop is the Index pages on the reel, C-1475, to look up Henry Anguish. The reel shows that a Henry Anguish is found at volume 105, p. 385, and volume 166, p. 81. Below the typed list of Anguishes there’s a note to see Anguish for Angust; this indicates that there must be places in the records where the last name was written as Angust. I should mention that there are a number of Anguishes in the list. In order to be satisfied that I had found everything, I would look up every one to see if they happen to also mention Henry.

Now we need to find which digitised microfilm reels contain volumes 105 and 166. Library and Archives Canada have put the four volumes that they consider to be ‘Loyalist Volumes’ all on one reel, C-1475, the same one we used above for the index Now it’s just a matter of finding the right page in the right volume. For ease of future searching, I’m noting the start pages of each volume here:

This should help us pretend that they are proper volumes and not one large, artificially created microfilm reel. It’ll also speed things up.

First we want to find Henry in Volume 105 Page 385. This is found through a lot of ‘hit and miss’ work with pages, because the pages aren’t all there. Unfortunately, when I did find the image it’s pretty poor quality (see below).

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‘[List] of Persons under the Description of Loyalist Specify[ing] … Captain Lewis Geneway Company in the Corps of Rangers’, Haldimand Papers C-1475 Vol. 105 (Image 386), page 385.

What we have here is a list of Loyalist families that are under the command of Captain Lewis Geneway and the rations allotted to them. Geneway was a Captain in Butler’s Rangers, the regiment Jacob had fought with.

Henry is listed with his family on the right side of the page:

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This segment of the list shows that Henry is 18. He is with his father, Jacob (age 63), his mother Elizabeth (age 54), older brother Jacob (20), and younger sisters Anna (16), who was initially left out by the transcriber) and Elizabeth (10). The family is entitled to 2 rations. Extrapolating from information on slightly clearer pages, it looks like this list is from 30 November 1783, the year before Jacob applies for aid for his family.

Next, we want to find Henry in Volume 166 page 81. Henry August is listed next to a Hanah August on a list of Loyalists from 1 August 1787 who are about to lose their right to provisions. Henry August is noted as being 14 and fit for service. As Henry’s last name is different, Anna’s (or Hanah’s) entire name is spelled incorrectly, neither are the expected age, they are not situated with their family, and they are in Montreal (we don’t know where they were in the first list, but have no evidence that they did not stay in the Niagara region where Jacob had been treated), we can’t be sure that this is the same Henry. However, we’ll keep it in our notes.

Upper Canada Land Petitions

My first stop is Library and Archives Canada’s Search page for the Land Petitions of Upper Canada, 1763-1865. A quick search for the surname Anguish brings up 15 results; Henry is first.

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Partial list of Search Results for the surname ‘Anguish’

Then, starting with the Microfilm reference in the far right column, C-1609, I search for the item with the digitised, microfilmed Upper Canada Land Petitions. Henry petition is number 27 in volume 1, so I thought I wouldn’t have to dig through too many images, but I was wrong, as volume 1 isn’t the first volume on the reel. Also, it’s important to note that the Haldimand Papers are numbered by page, but the UC Land Petitions are numbered by petition, so I am looking for Petition 27, not page 27 (like I would if I was searching in the Haldimand Papers).

Henry’s petition is found on page 276 of reel C-1609. It is addressed to John Graves Simcoe, the Governor of Upper Canada, and dated 11 May 1796. The petition tells us that Henry has lived in Upper Canada since 1778 and has about 50 acres of land which isn’t enough to support his family, which now consists of his wife and their four children. He states that his father served in the war under John Butler and his wife’s father had been a Sergeant in the same regiment. He concludes by praying that his request will be granted as they will suffer if it isn’t, and signs his name to the petition.

The following page records the reply: Henry and his wife are to be granted 200 acres of land each. In the reply they specifically note that Henry’s wife is the daughter of a Loyalist.

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Response to the petition of Henry Anguish, Upper Canada Land Petitions, C-1609 volume 1 (Page 277): 22/27.

Land Boards of Upper Canada

Names contained within the records of the Land Boards of Upper Canada can be searched for on Library and Archives Canada’s search page. A quick search for Henry Anguish leads us to a digital record of where he can be found in their list of land recipients:

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Search Results for Henry Anguish

The record here could be quite misleading. While the year given is 1802, when you find the actual entry in the manuscript, the date of the land grant was 12 May 1796. We already know this from our search above. The 1802 comes from the list of the Attorney General as they attempt to track all of the land grants, as the grant is recorded in the Land Board’s records on 24 March 1802. You can see the actual entry in my earlier post on Loyalist records.

Upper Canada Land Books

The Upper Canada Land Books provide information on where people can be found in the records. There’s no online search, but the index volumes are useful. Using the Land Books takes time and their intention is to refer you to where the actual records are. Here are the two record cards for Henry Anguish, found in Image 2821 and Image 2822:

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Upper Canada Land Book entry for Henry Anguish, C-10810 Image 2821

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Upper Canada Land Book entry for Henry Anguish, C-10810 Image 2822

Heir and Devisee Commission records

As we’ve noted, the online search available for these records only applies to those from the Second Heir and Devisee Commission which did not deal with Loyalists, but instead with their descendants’ applications for land. The only Anguish found in the Second Commission’s records is Lewis, Henry’s son (and my 4x great-grandfather) and shows that Lewis was granted land in Rainham township in 1841. The search results also give us useful details for tracking down Lewis’s grant in the records.

Without an online search for the time period I’m interested in, I have yet to find henry in the documents. There are a couple things I can do. First, I can perform an online search using a general search engine such as Google to see if someone else has found Henry in the records and has provided the details on where to find him. Second, I can try to find out where the land was granted (it appears to be Nassau, according to the Land Books we looked at above) and then find the set of records here that relate to Nassau and search for Henry within them.

The Nassau District becomes known as the Home District in 1792. This index to the records indicates that a number of volumes relate specifically to the Home District, but these often lead to summaries of the number of land claims rather than information on the individual claimants. Therefore, it’s possible that Henry is simply included in number of claimants given for a specific year or time period, rather than by name.

I hope what we can take from this search is that we can find out a lot of information about Loyalists and their families in the digitised sources. In some case this information includes interesting little details and insights into the lives, locations, living conditions, and the needs of early settlers in Upper Canada, while in other records these men and women and the documents they created have been amalgamated into the bigger picture of the European and American settlement of early Canada after 1776. When combined with some of the excellent recent works on Loyalist history and the history of Upper Canada, these stories of individuals bring the larger studies to life.